imagine you meet a person through a friend. when that friend says something and you come up with a witty comment. then you and the stranger say it simultaneously and you two look at each other like DUUUUUUUDE.
that’s how cool convergent evolution is.
of ppl not realizing that acting like science or its methods
are above criticism
is actually unscientific
what i learned from school
- im a fucking piece of shit
- everybody else is also a fucking piece of shit
- mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell
For much of modern history, science has been a very politically charged discipline, and France between the Empires was no exception. Thus, when Hugo mentions historical scientists in connection with Combeferre, those names are loaded with political connotations that can only be intentional.
While we (at least from a simplified US perspective) tend to see the left as standing for science and the right as, well, not, the battles of the era Hugo describes were between two different styles of science. The conservative side worked in the tradition of Carl Linnaeus and advocated a strictly descriptive approach to nature. They also believed in centralized, hierarchical scientific bodies. The liberals followed the Comte de Buffon’s more theoretical, speculative science and had a certain alliance with the Romantic movement in their poetical descriptions of nature.
The giant of French science (both in terms of institutional power and scientific achievements) until his death in the 1832 cholera was the Baron Georges Cuvier. He was personally a political moderate, but by the 1820s, he had seen enough of revolution and was happy to support whichever government was in power. He was afraid of the way untrammeled and unsubstantiated scientific theorizing could undermine social order, so held that his fellow zoologists should concern themselves with classifying the animal kingdom. (Cuvier’s opposition to pre-Darwinian theories of evolution, or “transformism” is famous today, but I think that’s a reflection of our own political concerns. “Transformism” was an example of science gone wrong in his eyes, but it was never the central question.) His rivals claimed that he wielded his many positions to quash the free inquiry of others.
Cuvier’s biggest rival was Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Yes, the one who so inspired Combeferre with his lecture on arteries. EGSH made plenty of his own contributions to zoology, but no one can claim that his actual discoveries were as important as those of Cuvier. However, he was a darling of the Romantics for his opposition to the “tyrannical” Cuvier and for his poetic insistence that science should be able to construct grand theories about the nature of the natural world. The same section of society that dove headfirst into the Battle of Hernani enthusiastically got involved when GC and EGSH got into a very public debate just a few months later, and then manned the barricades of 1830.
Furthermore, Cuvier’s alleged iron fist was waning in the final years of his life. From the middle of the 1820s, a new generation of liberal young scientists had been on the rise and attracting Cuvier’s ire. In 1830, their leader was elected to the second chair of the Academy of Sciences (the other chair, of course, belonging to Cuvier). This leader was none other than the physicist François Arago, the one who taught Combeferre about the polarization of light. As far as I can tell, he didn’t have much to do with the July Revolution, but he was a staunch republican who served as the provisional head of state of the Second Republic. He refused to swear loyalty to the government of Napoleon III, but the new emperor ordered that the dying scientist be left alone in honor of his lifetime of contributions to France.
In any event, LM is full of so, so many names of historical figures, but it’s clear that Hugo didn’t just pick them out of a hat. Combeferre’s scientific affiliations tell you quite a bit about not only his politics but also his understanding of how science should function.
people who are like “HUMANS ARE THE ONLY SPECIES THAT STEALS THE MILK OF OTHER LIVING CREATURES”
ants herd aphids and jerk them off so they can eat their cum so shut the fuck up
there’s also an ant that protects a single caterpillar that oozes sugary stuff from these little things on its butt.
ants are fucked up
There are also ants that take other species as slaves.
and ants that make colonies out of the bodies of living colony members.
and ants that fill their abdomens with sweet fluid to be used as a food source by other members of their colony.
and ants that kill and eat large birds and mammals as a giant killer colony of doom.
ants invented fucked up.
Hey Atheists: If Earth is “billions of years old,” then why is it only 2013?
fscience damn it. shit. fuck. how did we overlook this. f uck
Can we talk for a second about how Linnaeus, when he described the genus Homo, erected the not only the subspecies Homo sapiens europaeus (Europeans with blonde hair and blue eyes… sound familiar?), Homo sapiens afer (African humans), Homo sapiens americanus (Native Americans?), Homo sapiens asiaticus (Asians) and Homo sapiens sapiens (for which he is now the neotype specimen - possibly the greatest honour given to any scientist ever), but also Homo sapiens monstrosus - monsters, apparently including sagas and fairies, and Homo sapiens ferus - feral children. His imagination appears to have gotten the better of him.
True, and if I remember correctly, Linnaeus was also the first to classify humans and monkeys within the same order - primates (“primus” meaning first, thereby giving the distinction of the “highest” order to primates - to include humans).
So Linnaeus was right about some things - and terribly wrong about others.
My internet acquaintance Ross Piper had a copy of his new book sent to me and it’s exactly what I’d expect from him.
This book takes you through EVERY phylum in the animal kingdom with gorgeous illustrations and seldom-seen photographs.
Things 90% of people have probably never heard of in their lives, and that might be a conservative estimate.
Want to know just how perfect a cross-section this single book offers of the Animalia?
Between my fingers, here, after the Siphonophores and before the Peanut Worms, is the book’s ENTIRE section on vertebrates.
Animals with skeletons occupy about as much of this book as they represent the actual diversity of Earth’s animal life.
Even Arthropods aren’t given a much larger section, because while they could easily fill entire books themselves, they already do. People generally know what insects and arachnids are, and you can find plenty about them.
"Animal Earth" gives the rest of the world’s animals a spotlight. No phylum is reduced to a single footnote or graph as it would be in countless other texts.
PUT IT ON YOUR KRAMPUS WISH LIST
In a perfect world, every child would get to thumb through this book as their true introduction to what the word “animal” means.
There is a growing awareness of squats as an important if not the most important strength training exercise for the lower body. As a personal trainer it’s hard to argue with this fact. But now a number of 30 programs and challenges are circulating around tumblr and the internet for squats. This is one of a number of squat challenges I’ve seen.
The goal of these images usually is centered around the goal of getting a really nice butt like the one in the picture. While I’m sure it’s quite an accomplishment to complete this program. It’s not really training you in the most efficient way or for the right goal.
The volume of squats is way off. Most of these don’t specify if you should do all of these squats in a row, or if they are to be broken up over a whole day or into sets. Who knows what you should do with the 50-250 squats you are stuck with. Lets assume you are supposed to do them all in one sitting. This type of training would actually be preparing your muscles to have improved endurance. Which isn’t a problem except we are trying to get a nice butt! When people get nice butts they get it though muscle hypertrophy (simply put your muscles growing in size). High repetition exercise does not cause hypertrophy. Scientific research has shown that the optimal repetition range is around 8-12 reps per set. So you really should be doing sets of 8-12 squats to be creating that butt you so dearly want.
So cool you say, I’ll just break my 50-250 squats in to sets of 8-12 and I’ll be good! Not exactly, research has also shown that there is a diminishing return on muscular gains after about 3-4 sets of a certain exercise. Meaning that if you do 10 sets of squats you aren’t likely to see better results than if you simply did 3-4 sets of it.
Your ideal squat program should look something more like this. 3-4 sets of 8-12 reps.
The amount of consecutive days that you squat is way too high. For your muscles to grow they need to be put under stress and then be allowed to recover from that stress and grow. The majority of these programs stack at least 3 days in a row of squats together. The problem with this is that your leg muscles aren’t being given time to recover. Muscles need at least 24 hours to recover after a strength training workout. I honestly recommend people take at least 48 hours between working the same muscle group. When you don’t give your body time to recover you are simply stressing the same muscle group again the next day and delaying or undoing the work you did the day before. By the time you get to a rest day you most likely only get the results of about one days work.
A proper squat program should look more like Squat one day, rest one day, squat one day, rest one day or Squat one day, rest two days, squat one day, rest two days.
There is no indication to add or increase weight. When you start a squat program you might just need to start with body weight only. For a few workouts this might be enough. But over time squats will get easier to the point that it’s not much of a challenge anymore. Think about it, if you can do 250 squats in a row with your body weight, it’s gotten pretty easy. The key is for your muscles to hypertrophy they need to continue to be challenged. This is why you need to start adding weight to keep your squats challenging. I’m not telling you that you need to go into the gym and get in the squat rack and start lifting. If you are progressing from body weight squats you can add weight in a lot of ways. Hold two dumbbells at your sides, Hold something heavy close to your body like a jug of water, wear a backpack weighted down with something heavy like some books. It doesn’t matter if its real weights or something you have around the house, you need to start adding weights when your squats become easy of you will never get any better.
I hope you guys have learned a few things from this post. Unfortunately not everything on the internet is correct when it comes to exercising. But if you are educated and know how your body works and how training works you can better weed out the incorrect information from the good information.
From the genus Magnapinna, the Bigfin Squid's long tentacles can grow up to four and six meteres (13-29 feet). Their purpose? Scientists speculate that they run them along the sea floor to snatch prey.
HAVE FUN SLEEPING.